Description: This antibody reacts on a 49kDa protein designated as CD1a. CD1a is a non-polymorphic MHC Class 1 related cell surface glycoprotein, expressed in association with Beta 2 microglobulin. CD1a is expressed by cortical thymocytes, epidermal Langerhan's cells, dendritic cells, interdigitating cells, on certain T-cell leukemias, and in various other tissues. CD1a is also expressed by some malignancies of T cell lineage and in histiocytosis X.
Description: : CD3 is first detectable in early thymocytes and its appearance probably represents one of the earliest signs of commitment to T cell lineage. In cortical thymocytes, the antigen is predominantly present as an intracytoplasmic constituent. This antibody labels CD3ε and is a useful tool for the identification of T cells and related neoplasms.
Description: CD8 is expressed by most thymocytes and about a third of peripheral T cells as a heterodimer consisting of CD8α and CD8β. This monoclonal antibody has been shown to deplete the CD8-positive T cells from the peripheral lymphoid organs following in vivo administration.
Description: CD8 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR). Like the TCR, CD8 binds to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, but is specific for the class I MHC protein. There are two isoforms of the protein, alpha and beta, each encoded by a different gene. In humans, both genes are located on chromosome 2 in position 2p12.
Description: CD8 is a cell surface receptor, it binds to MHC class 1 and plays a role in T cell development and activation of mature T cells. For mature T-cells, CD4 and CD8 are mutually exclusive, so anti-CD8, generally used in conjunction with anti-CD4. It is a useful marker for distinguishing helper/inducer T-lymphocytes, and most peripheral T-cell lymphomas are CD4+/CD8-. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is usually CD4+ and CD8-, and in T-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia, CD4 and CD8 are often co-expressed. CD8 is also found in littoral cell angioma of the spleen
Description: Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA / CD10) is a useful marker for the characterization of childhood leukemia and B cell lymphomas. This antibody reacts with antigen of lymphoblastic, Burkitt’s, and follicular lymphomas; and chronic myelocytic leukemia. Also, Anti-CD10 detects the antigen of glomerular epithelial cells and the brush border of the proximal tubules; this characteristic may be helpful in interpreting renal ontogenesis in conjunction with other markers. Other non-lymphoid cells that are reactive with CD10 are breast myoepithelial cells, bile canaliculi, neutrophils and small population of bone marrow cells, fetal small intestine epithelium, and normal fibroblasts. Recently Anti-CD10 has been used to classify follicular thyroid lesions.
Description: CD11a (αL integrin, LFA-1 α chain) is a member of the integrin family. CD11a is a pan-leukocyte marker and is expressed by B- and T-lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. It mediates cell-cell adhesion by binding to CD54 and ICAM-2.
Description: This antibody is specific to a 33 kDa polypeptide present on the majority of B cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue. No reactivity with other hematopoietic cells has been observed.
Description: CD20 is expressed on all stages of B-cell development except the first and last; it is present from late pro-B cells through memory cells, but not on either early pro-B cells or plasma blasts and plasma cells. It is found on B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and melanoma cancer stem cells. Because CD20 remains present on the cells of most B-cell neoplasms, and is absent on T-cell neoplasms, it can be very useful in diagnosing conditions such as B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. CD20 positive cells are also sometimes found in cases of Hodgkin’s disease, myeloma, and thymoma.
Description: CD21 (CR2, EBV-receptor) is present on mature B-cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). This antibody can be used to demonstrate the FDC meshwork in lymphoid tissue. This feature can be useful in examining tissue where the normal germinal centers have been effaced by disease processes, such as HIV infection, some neoplastic conditions, like B-cell MALT lymphomas, mantle cell lymphoma, and some T cell lymphomas. Castleman's disease is typified by the presence of abnormal FDCs.
Description: CD23 is a 45 kDa protein. It is a member of the Ig family, and can be demonstrated in germinal centre B-cells, but it is not present in the resting cells of the surrounding mantle zone. Lymphomas arising from the mantle zone are generally negative for CD23, but most B-cell chronic lymphomocytic leukemias and low-grade B-cell lymphomas are positive, allowing to distinguish these conditions, which otherwise have a similar appearance. Reed–Sternberg cells are usually positive for CD23.
Description: This antibody reacts on a 45 kDa membrane glycoprotein designated as CD23. CD23 can be found on a subpopulation of peripheral blood cells, B lymphocytes, and EBV transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines. Its expression can be detected on neoplastic cells of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases.
Description: This antibody recognizes a single chain glycoprotein of 105/120kDa, identified as CD30/Ki-1. In Hodgkin’s disease, it is expressed by mononuclear- Hodgkin and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells. It is also expressed by the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas as well as by some activated T and B cells. This antibody distinguishes large cell lymphomas derived from activated lymphoid cells from histiocytic malignancies and lymphomas derived from resting and precursor lymphoid cells or from anaplastic carcinomas. About one third of the Ki-1 positive lymphomas lack the leukocyte common antigen (CD45).
Species reactivity: Human, cynomolgus monkey, rabbit.
Description: CD31 (PECAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is widely used as an endothelial cell marker. Anti-CD31 reacts with normal, benign, and malignant endothelial cells which make up blood vessel lining. The level of expression can help to determine the degree of tumor angiogenesis, a high level may imply a rapidly growing tumor and potentially a predictor of recurrence.
Description: This mouse monoclonal antibody reacts with a 110 kDa molecular weight glycoprotein, identified as CD34, which is present on the surface of hematopoietic cells (i. e. myeloid and lymphoid progenitors). It stains the vascular endothelial cells.
Description: Antibody to CD45 is useful in differential diagnosis of lymphoid tumors from non-hematopoietic undifferentiated neoplasms. A positive staining with anti- CD45 is highly indicative of lymphoid or myeloid origin. Certain types of lymphoid neoplasms may lack CD45 (Hodgkin lymphoma, some T-cell lymphomas, and some leukemias) so its absence does not rule out a hematolymphoid tumor. This antibody is expressed almost exclusively by cells of hematopoietic lineage and is present in most benign and malignant lymphocytes as well as plasma cell precursors.
Description: CD45 (LCA) is a trans-membrane phosphotyrosine phosphatase expressed on leucocytes. This monoclonal antibody against the exon C-dependent RC isoform reacts strongly with B cells, and less intensely with most CD8+ T cells, whereas it does not recognize CD4+ T cells. Myeloid cells do not express the RC isoform.
Species reactivity: Human, chimpanzee, common marmoset.
Description: Anti- CD45 RO (T cell, Pan) antibody reacts with thymocytes and activated T cells, but only on a subpopulation of resting T cells. This antibody shows no reactivity with B cells making it a good marker for T cell tumors. Granulocytes and monocytes are also labelled with this antibody.
Description: CD57 is found on natural killer cells and CD8+ lymphocytes. These cells play a role in the rejection of grafts in acute graft versus host disease. The CD57 molecule is not expressed on erythrocytes or platelets.
Description: CD68 is expressed by monocytes, macrophages and myeloid cells. Immunodetection of this antigen is useful for detection of reactive macrophages in a wide variety of normal and pathological conditions and for immunophenotyping of myeloid and histiocytic cells and their neoplastic equivalents.
Description: The antibody recognizes an extracellular epitope expressed on the CD79a molecule, and detects the full spectrum of B cells. CD79a has been found to be co-expressed with CD3 in 10% of cases of T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. Useful in the differential diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease.
Description: Thy-1 antigen (CD 90) is a GPI-linked glycoprotein member of the Ig-superfamily. It is expressed on murine T cells, thymocytes, neural cells, Kupffer’s cells and fibroblasts. This monoclonal antibody has been shown to deplete peripheral T cells upon in vivo administration.
Species reactivity: Human, monkey, pig, bovine, rat.
Description: This antibody reacts with a 145 kDa molecular weight protein, designated as CD117/c-kit. C-kits are transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases expressed in many tissues and cells and are involved in the development of several linages of stem cells such as germ cells, neuronal crest derived melanocytes and hematopoietic precursor cells.